Glossary - thesaurau percussion leslie arranger amplifier hammond lowrey Technics celeste tremolo prochord drawbars aftertouch

Glossary - what all the

Here we present a list of most of the common words and terms you might encounter, and their meanings.....if you know of any more, let us know, and we will add them to the list!


AFTERTOUCH : Similar to touch response, but can work even when a key is still held down by varying the key pressure.

ALPHA WHEEL : A rotary wheel used to select features such as rhythm speed, or options from a menu shown on the screen, or some other parameter that can be changed by the player.

A.O.C. : The original system developed by Lowrey Organs that enabled extra notes to be added to a single note melody line fully automatically. It is now used by other manufacturers using different names, eg. Orla (OMC), Hammond (Prochord) and Technics (Technichord).

AMPLIFIER : An electrical device that takes a low level audio source and increases it to a much higher level.

ANALOGUE : A system of generating tones and effects that does not use digital technology; many older organs and keyboards use this system, producing sounds by generating basic waveforms which are then modified by filters to form all the different sounds.

ARPEGGIO : A series of harmonically pleasant-sounding notes played individually one after the other - particularly effective on Piano or similar sustained instruments.

ARRANGER : A name found on many modern organs and keyboards; this button provides the player with a fully orchestrated backing to any selected rhythm.

ATTACK : The way a note behaves when it is first depressed. For instance, the sound of a piano has a hard or quick attack, whereas a flute sound builds slowly, and therefore features soft attack. Also used in some organs to simulate the way an organ pipe comes on 'slowly' rather than instantly - often described as 'soft attack' or 'delayed attack'.

AUTOHARMONIZE : See AOC above. Automatic addition of extra notes to your melody line - this is the CASIO name for this effect.

AUTOVARI : Used on many Hammond organs, this will automatically change the rhythm variations every 4 bars, 8 bars, or as selected by the player.

AUX IN, AUXILIARY IN : Sockets that enable the player to connect another keyboard, drum machine or other sound source to his instrument. They are not usually of high enough gain to accept a microphone input.

AUX OUT, AUXILIARY OUT : Sockets that enable the player to get an output from the instrument to connect to an amplifier or tape deck, or to the audio input of a computer.


BALANCED LINE : An audio cable containing two cores surrounded by an outer screen. By sending the signal along the two cores out of phase, interference and noise is minimised.

BANK : A collection of sounds or patches - usually 128 of them.


BENCH : The correct name for the seat that goes with an organ or piano.

BEND : Also known as PITCH BEND or GLIDE - a way of sliding a note up or down to simulate the sound of, for example, a trombone or Hawaiian Guitar.

BREAK : A short change of rhythm pattern, usually one or two bars, to add extra realism to a drum backing.

BULGIN 8 WAY PLUG : A special 8 pin plug and socket arrangement normally used for stage lighting circuits.


CELESTE : The word has two different meanings; one is a gently undulating effect that can make organ sounds appear very 'pipe' like, as if being played in a Cathedral. The other meaning is an instrument, a bit like a small, metal bar xylophone - you will have heard it in the 'Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy'.

CHAIN PLAY : A feature that lets you play back all the songs from a disk one after the other automatically, instead of loading each song seperately.

CHORD : A group of several notes played together, often with the left hand - more advanced players will play chords with both hands.

CHORD SYMBOLS : Letters and numbers used to represent a chord shape; a lot of music is written like this for people who are unable to read bass clef (left hand) notation. Thinks of it as 'musical shorthand'.

CHORUS : An effect that adds extra depth and 'spread' to a sound.

COMBINATION : A way of quickly selecting a mixture of sounds without loads of button pushing! Complex combinations of sounds and effects can be stored and recalled at the touch of a single button. See also PISTONS.

COMPACT FLASH : A small digital memory card used to save your songs or presets. Also used in MP3 players and digital cameras.

COUPLER : Often used on pipe organs, and their electronic counterparts; a way of linking keyboards together, or keyboards to pedals, so that the combined sounds can be driven from just one keyboard.

CURSOR : The indicator on a display screen (often flashing) to indicate where any control input from the player will take place.

CUSTOM STYLE : A rhythm and/or backing arrangement that is not one of those originally programmed into the instrument, sometimes 'made up' by the player for his own particular use.

CUSTOM VOICE : An edited or modified tone that is not one of those originally programmed into the instrument, sometimes 'made up' by the player for his own particular use.


DD, DOUBLE DENSITY : A type of floppy disk that can hold roughly 700Kb of information. Most machines now can use the higher capacity HD (High Density) disks. A DD disk has only one aperture at the bottom left-hand corner of the casing. HD disks have an aperture on the right hand side as well.

DAMPER PEDAL : The name given to the right hand pedal on a piano - also known as a sustain pedal. It makes the notes 'hang on' longer after they have been released. If used on voices like Organ or Strings, it will instead usually act as a memory, holding on to the sounds until the pedal is released.

DECAY : The effect of a sound dying away in volume after the initial depression of a key. Can often be extended by use of SUSTAIN.

DEMO, DEMONSTRATION : A built-in sequence of songs to show off what the instrument is capable of in expert hands!

DETUNE : To drop the tuning of the instrument in very fine steps.

DIGITAL : Also see ANALOGUE. A way of producing sounds and effects 'numerically' in the same way that computers handle information.

DIGITAL EFFECTS : Effects such as chorus, reverberation and echo produced by digital circuitry inside the instrument.

DIGITAL DRAWBARS : See DRAWBARS. An all electronic way of simulating the mechanical action of conventional Drawbars - often shown graphically on the instrument's display screen.

DIN PLUG, DIN SOCKET : A compact plug and socket system usually using 3 or 5 pins in a 180 degree arc. Also used on MIDI leads and connections.

DISK DRIVE : A device for reading or saving information when used with floppy disks - often built into fairly modern instruments although memory sticks and cards are becoming more commonly used as they hold more information, and have no moving parts.

DISPLAY : A screen on the instrument that shows relevant information of use to the player.

DISPLAY HOLD : A button that 'freezes' the current information on the Display.

DRAWBARS : Variable sliders that provide pure 'flute' sounds at different footage levels to give rich organ sounds. First (and still) found on Hammond organs and many other makes too.

DRUM BREAK : In real life, the odd bars where a drummer will vary the pattern slightly to avoid monotony, or as a link between sections. Most modern keyboard instruments give you this feature.

DYNAMIC : Often used instead of the words TOUCH RESPONSE - the effect that alters the volume (and often brightness too) of a note according to how hard the player strikes it.


EASY PLAY : Normally used for your left hand section of a keyboard, or the lower keyboard on an organ; it enables the player to use 'simplified' chord shapes, sometimes even just with one finger! Also refers to music books that have the note names written in together with simple chord symbols.

EFFECTS LOOP : Sockets on an amplifier that enable the audio to be routed through special effects devices, and then reinserted back into the amplifier.

ENDING : A ready-made ending to add at the end of your song.

ENVELOPE : The joint effects of attack, decay and sustain on a note; the way a note starts, continues and then stops!

EQUALISER : A device that enables the player to fine-tune the bass, middle and treble responses of the instrument. Sometimes known as a 'graphic equaliser'.

EXPANDER : A small add-on box driven via MIDI from another instrument that can produce loads of additional sounds - and sometimes rhythms and backings too!

EXPRESSION PEDAL : A pedal to control the volume of an instrument; also called a 'swell pedal'.


FALL : A sliding or folding lid to cover the keyboards on an organ or piano.

FILL-IN : Hit this button to get a short 'drum break' in your rhythm accompaniment.

FLANGER : An effect that causes the sounds to build and then decay.

FLIGHT CASE : A special case for a keyboard or other instrument, usually of wood and/or aluminium, to protect the instrument in transit.

FORMAT, FORMATTING : You have to do this to a new floppy disk before using it for the first time - it puts electronic 'page numbers' on to the disk so that information can be easily recalled after recording. Many disks now come ready formatted. Formatting will erase anything already on the disk, so use it with care!

FULL RANGE CHORD : Used on modern keyboards and digital pianos, this effect lets you play the instrument like a piano, ie; without the keyboard being split, yet it will still feedback information to the instrument so that it can provide the correct chord information to get the right automatic backings. It's hard to explain, but easy to understand when you try it!


GENERAL MIDI, GM : (see M.I.D.I. below) A universal 'set of rules' applied to MIDI systems now adopted by all major manufacturers, giving a much better standardisation of the whole process; it makes it easier to link different makes of instruments together.

GIG : A performance, usually paid, for a musician.

GLIDE : A way you can 'slide' the pitch of a note from slightly 'flat' up to the true pitch. It can give realism to instruments such as Trombone or Hawaiian guitar. It is controlled either by a spring-loaded 'pitch wheel', or by a 'kick switch' to one side of the volume (swell) pedal.

GLISSANDO : A run of notes in succession, usually in an upwards direction, and usually every note in turn, unlike an arpeggio, which tends to use certain notes only, to make the harmony sound right.

GREAT : The lowest manual (keyboard) on a Church organ, where the heaviest tones will be found. Usually, the volume of the Great is not affected by the Swell (volume) pedal.

GROOVE : Various meanings in heavier modern music, but more commonly, on certain models of keyboard, this button introduces "swingy" feel to an otherwise very standard rhythm.

GS : An advanced version of General MIDI, with additional variations of the original 128 sounds.


HD, HIGH DENSITY : The latest types of floppy disk are high density, which means that can store roughly twice as much information as Double Density (DD) disks. Double density disks have two apertures at the bottom of the casing - one on the right, one on the felt.

HAMMER ACTION : Modern digital pianos (and some keyboards) have a 'weighted action' where the pressure required to make a note sound is heavier than that on a normal keyboard. Simulated 'hammer action' takes this a stage further by giving a true piano action 'feel' as if there are actually hammers being moved by the keys.

HARDWARE : In a modern instrument, the actual case, electronics, speakers etc, are known as the hardware. The information stored in its memory, which is in fact a computer program, and known as 'Software'.

HEADPHONES : Miniature loudspeakers on a headband; they are worn by the player, and when plugged into an instrument, they 'silence' the built-in speaker system so that only the player can hear the music.

HOST SOCKET : A special socket used on some keyboards to avoid the use of MIDI cables.


INTRO, INTRODUCTION : Use this to add a fully orchestrated introduction to your playing - it normally works for two or four bars before the basic rhythm pattern comes into play.


JACK PLUG, JACK SOCKET : A plug and socket system widely used in the music industry for audio and speaker connections. Mono and stereo versions are available in various diameters - see our CONNECTORS chart for full details.


KEY CLICK : Early tonewheel Hammond organs had this peculiar 'fault' which was a slight electronic 'click' as the notes were depressed. When they went fully electronic, the sound disappeared - any everyone missed it so much that special circuitry was developed to put the sound back! Most organ and keyboard makes now have this feature available.

KEY START : A feature that makes the rhythm start automatically when a left hand chord (or sometimes a pedal) is depressed, which means you don't have to have a hand free to start the rhythm!


LAYER : A second sound added to a first sound; the act of mixing two solo sounds together.

L.C.D. : Liquid Crystal Play - the technology used in many of the display screens used on organs and keyboards - and digital watches!

L.E.D. : Light Emitting Diode - a device that produces light when a current is passed through it. Often used instead of filament bulbs on switches. There is nothing to burn out, and they use much less power.

LESLIE SPEAKER : A speaker system used in organs that uses moving mechanical 'rotors' or sound reflectors to give slow 'church' or fast tremolo effects. Most instruments now get similar effects by electronic means. The Leslie speaker could either be built in to the organ cabinet, or housed in a separate cabinet.

LINE IN : Sockets that enable you to add a sound source from another instrument into your organ, keyboard or digital piano. It is rare for them to have enough gain for a microphone, however, unless a preamp is used.

LINE OUT : Sockets that enable you to connect your keyboard to an amplifier, home stereo system or tape deck, without muting the speakers on your instrument.

LOAD : The function of copying information from a floppy disk on to your instrument. Another meaning of the word (less important to the average player) is the impedance (resistance) of a loudspeaker with regard to the amplifier.


MAINS ADAPTOR : A device which drops the mains voltage down to a much lower level - typically 9-12 volts - and usually turns it from AC to DC at the same time. It can save a lot of money if you are using equipment that can also run on expensive batteries.

MANUAL : The 'proper' name for a keyboard on an organ - ie: it is a two manual instrument....

MANUAL DRUMS : Drum sounds triggered by playing notes on the keyboard, as opposed to full automatic rhythm patterns. Each note will trigger a different drum or percussive sound.

MANUSCRIPT : 'Blank' music paper - that is, the sets of five lines (staves) are already printed, waiting for you to write your masterpiece on them!

MEMORY : Either (a) a button which keeps sounds hanging on after you have released the notes, or (b) an area of the instrument that can retain various items or instructions you might have used while playing, or (c) the actual electronic components or external media, (eg. floppy disks, memory cards) used to store the information itself.

MEMORY STICK : A USB equipped small plug-in unit that acts in the same way as a memory card.They are very portable and can hold massive amounts of musical information, pictures, computer data etc.

MENU : A list of various options that can be found on the display screen on your instrument.

METRONOME : A device, sometimes mechanical, now often electronic, that provides audible and visual indication of the speed at which a piece of music should be played.

M.I.D.I. : Acronym for 'Musical Instrument Digital Interface' - a system that enables modern electronic instruments to swap data from one to another, or to and from a computer.

MIXER : A device that enables the player to 'mix' together sounds from various sources, with controls so that the individual volumes of those sources can be adjusted as required.

MODULATION, MODULATION WHEEL : A rotary (usually) wheel, often to the left hand side of the instrument, which can add varying degrees of 'vibrato' or 'wobble' to your selected tones. Do return it to the 'off' position after use, as it can sound awful if accidentally used with voices like piano!

MONITOR SPEAKER : A speaker/amplifier that is used solely for the benefit of the performer, not the audience.

MONO, MONOPHONIC : Capable of producing just one note at a time. See also POLYPHONIC.

MULTI TIMBRAL : Able to produce more than one tone at a time; for instance, many sound modules or expanders can produce up to 16 (or more!) independent 'tracks' of different sounds simultaneously!

MULTI TRACK : Able to play or record more than one track of information at a time.


O.M.C. : The ORLA trade name for A.O.C. (see above)

ONE FINGER CHORD : An effect where the chords to be played by the left hand are simplified down so that can be played with just one (or with simple additions) finger - a bit like the action of the buttons on an accordion

ONE TOUCH PLAY : The TECHNICS trade name for the effect that sets up suitable sounds and effects to automatically match your selected rhythm pattern.

OVERDRIVE : An effect of driving an amplifier so hard that it begins to distort, now simulated digitally, and very popular with those rooted in 60's music!

OVERHANGING KEYS : Keys that, instead of being square fronted like those of a piano, have tapered undersides, like those of an organ. Also, the front of one keyboard usually overhangs the back of the keyboard below to a small degree, to enable the player to switch quickly from one keyboard to another.


PAD : Two meanings.... (a) A button used to trigger a special effect or a drum sound, or (b) a complex sound often associated with strings or choir effects, often of the synthesised variety.

PAGE, PAGE UP, PAGE DOWN : When you bring up a MENU on your display screen, it will often have several sub pages. This are accessed using the Page Up or Page Down buttons.

PAN, PAN POT : Panning is used to alter the volume level of an instrument sound to each amplifier in a stereo setup. If both amps are set to the same volume, the sound will appear to come from straight ahead. If you slowly increase the volume to the left, for example, and decrease it to the right, the sound will appear to slowly move to the left. The Pan pot is the control that effects this balance between the speakers and amplifiers - a bit like a balance control on a home stereo system.

PARAMETER : When altering various effects on an instrument, you are often presented with numerical values or other options to select to do this. These are known as parameters

PASTE : The act of inserting a new section of data into an existing section. Often used when editing audio or MIDI files on a computer.

PATCH : A complete set up of sound and effects, which can usually be sent from one instrument to another (or to a computer) using MIDI.

PATTERN : The result of programming your own rhythm and/or backing. See also PROGRAMMABLE RHYTHM.

PEDALBOARD : A keyboard for an organ or keyboard that is played with the foot. The 13 note (includes 'black' notes!) is most common on home instruments, and is played with the left foot. Larger instruments might have 20, 25 or 32 note pedalboards.

PERCUSSION : Two meanings: (a) Instruments belonging to the drum family, or other instruments that are 'hit' by sticks or beaters, or (b) the sharp 'edge' at the beginning of a note, like a piano or xylophone.

'PHONES : Shortened version of 'Headphones' - see entry above.

PHONO PLUG : A compact audio or video plug with a short central pin surrounded by a metal 'collar' - also known less well as an RCA plug.

PIANO BAR : The FARFISA trade name for the FULL RANGE CHORD effect. (See above)

PITCH BEND : A similar effect to 'GLIDE' (see above), but often using a much wider pitch range, and usually available above or below the true pitch of the instrument.

POLY, POLYPHONIC : Able to produce more than one note at a time, as opposed to MONOPHONIC, which literally means 'one note at a time'.

POLYPHONY : The number of notes that can sound simultaneously on an instrument.

PORTABLE : An instrument that is designed to split into easy to manage, lightweight sections for ease of transport. See also TRANSPORTABLE.

POWER SUPPLY : The part of an instrument that converts mains voltage down to various lower levels as needed for the various circuits.

PRE-AMP, PREAMPLIFIER : An electronic circuit that amplifies a very low level signal into something more usable. Often used, for example, between a microphone and an amplifier. Without it, the volume would be very low, or distorted, or even inaudible.

PRESET : A button that will store a complex combination of sounds, effects and possibly rhythms too. It can often be altered by the player to suit his or her own musical taste.

PROCHORD : The HAMMOND version of AOC (above) - an effect that automatically adds extra notes to your single finger melody.

PROGRAM CHANGE : A piece of MIDI code inserted into a MIDI file that will change a sound in your song.

PROGRAMMABLE RHYTHMS : A facility that lets you 'program' your own rhythm patterns beat by beat, and store them for use later.


QUANTIZE : When recording, you will never be able to play the timing of your tune exactly; quantizing is an effect that will 'neaten' up your timing. The owner's manual will usually explain this in much more detail, and offer various options for this very useful effect.


RCA PLUG : More widely known in the UK as a PHONO plug, it is a compact audio plug consisting of a central pin surrounded by a short metal collar. See our CONNECTORS CHART for more details.

REAL TIME : The process of recording songs as they are played, rather than by putting notes in one by one (see STEP TIME).

REGISTRATION PRESETS : Buttons that can be used to store complex combinations of sounds and effects, so that they can be recalled just with the touch of a single button. On most modern instruments you can determine what sounds and effects can be stored. You can often purchase ready-made Registration Presets on a floppy disk, ready to load into your instrument.

REITERATION : A repeating effect - useful for sounds like Banjo, Marimba and Mandolin.

REPEAT : As reiteration above.

REVERB, REVERBERATION : The effect of a continuous 'echo' that gives the performer the feeling of playing in a large empty building. Earlier systems used a set of springs to do the effect, but now digital technology can give a much better effect with more variations.

RHYTHM REGISTRATION : This button will automatically select sounds, rhythm speeds and effects to suit a particular rhythm.

R.M.S. : A way of describing the 'loudness' of an instrument in units of watts. Most smaller keyboards have a power of about ten watts RMS overall. Organs tend to have quite a bit more power, even for home use. 100 watt RMS machines are quite common. Volume can also be measured using a standard called P.M.P.O. These units appear to be much bigger, but most musicians would rather deal in the RMS watts system!


SAVE : The action of putting information on to a floppy disk or memory card.

SCART PLUG : A multi pin plug that carries two way audio and video information; used extensively for video and karaoke applications.

SEQUENCER : The feature on an organ, keyboard or digital piano that enables you to record your playing for subsequent playback. Also a computer program to do the same function.

SHORTCUT : A quick way of performing a complex task on your instrument.

SMART MEDIA : A very compact memory device, about the size of a postage stamp, that can store many more times data than a floppy disk, and has no moving parts. Now falling out of fashion, and quite hard to find!

SMF : Standard MIDI file.

SOFT PEDAL : The left hand of the pedals on a piano. Softens the notes and slightly reduces their volume.

SOFTWARE : An operating system for an instrument stored as computer data, either internally, or on a disk etc.

SOSTENUTO : On a piano with three pedals, this will be the middle one; it is somewhat like the damper pedal, but it only hangs on to notes that are depressed when the pedal is applied. Anything added afterwards is not sustained.

SOUND EFFECT : A non-musical sound that can be activated by button, or from a note on your instrument. Examples are applause, thunder, birds singing etc.

SOUND MODULE : Almost a keyboard but without any keys! A compact box of additional sounds and/or styles that can be driven from your existing instrument via MIDI.

SPLIT : A button which activates the SPLIT POINT (see below).

SPLIT POINT : The point on a keyboard where the section for the left hand (accompaniment) meets the section for the right hand.

STEP TIME : A way of inputting chords, notes or drum beats 'mathematically' step by step, instead of recording them while playing.

STEREO, STEREOPHONIC : By using two speakers and amplifiers, you can simulate just from which direction a sound is heard - this is stereo. MONO is where the sound is produced from a single amplifier and speaker - the sound is then very directional.

STOOL : The incorrect name for a seat used with an organ or piano - it should be called a 'bench'; any musician with a sense of humour will remind you that 'stool' is a medical term!

STYLE : A name for a backing rhythm and associated instrument backing patterns.

STYLE CONVERSION : The ability to change the format of a rhythm backing from one make of instrument to another.

SUSTAIN : An effect where the note dies away slowly after the key has been released, instead of stopping instantly.

SUSTAIN PEDAL : The right hand pedal on a piano. See SUSTAIN above.

SWELL : Two meanings: either the second keyboard up from the lowest on a Church organ, or the volume pedal on an organ or keyboard.

SWELL PEDAL : The volume pedal on an organ or keyboard.

SYNCHRO START : This button makes the rhythm start as soon as you play the first left-hand chord (or sometimes the first pedal as well on an organ.) It makes it easier for a player to start the rhythm in the right place in the music!

SYNTH, SYNTHESISER : A device than can make up completely new sounds from scratch, often very 'electronic' sounding.


TECHNICHORD : See AOC; the Technics name for the feature that automatically adds extra notes to your single finger melody.

TEMPO, TEMPO WHEEL : Buttons, or a rotary wheel used to control the speed of your rhythm in beats per minute.

TONEBAR : Another name for the DRAWBAR as used in Hammond and other makes of organ.

TONE CABINET : A speaker cabinet completely independent from the speaker system actually installed inside an organ or digital piano.

TONEWHEEL : Part of an electromechanical device used notably by early Hammond organs in their electromagnetic sound generating system.

TOUCH : See TOUCH RESPONSE. The way in which a key responds to the speed or pressure of the player's performance.

TOUCH RESPONSE : Refers to the way a keyboard can work out how hard you hit a key, and turn this into volume information, or be used to trigger another effect, like PERCUSSION for example.

TOUCH TEMPO : This button will let you select the speed for a rhythm by 'tapping' it in, rather than selecting it numerically, or with an alpha wheel.

TRACKS : In recording, you can often place different orchestral sounds on to different tracks, which can then all be played back together. Therefore, if you make a mistake, or need to alter anything, you don't have to re-record the whole piece.

TRANSPORTABLE : A bit like PORTABLE, but generally not so light, but usually able to be broken down into several parts for easier transport.

TRANSPOSER : A device that can change the pitch of the instrument in semi-tone steps, so that your music can be played in one key, but heard in a different key.

TREMOLO : A musical effect that varies the volume of the sound in a fast cyclic manner. It was a favourite effect for guitarists in the 50's and 60's before more sophisticated effects became available.

TWEETER : A small loudspeaker designed to handle the high frequency end of the audio spectrum.


USB : Universal serial bus - sockets on computers that can have printers, cameras, sound sources, mouse etc. connected.


VELOCITY : The speed at which a key is struck - the faster it is depressed, usually the louder (and sometime, brighter) the sound will be formed.

VIBRATO : Often confused with TREMOLO; a musical effect that varies the pitch in a fast cyclic manner, instead of the volume. You can hear the effect very easily when a violinist 'wobbles' the strings while bowing a note.

VIDEO OUT : Some keyboards are able to decode the words off a MIDI disk - this information is sent to the VIDEO OUT socket, which can be connected to the VIDEO IN socket on a Television, which will then display the words in typical 'karaoke' fashion.

VOX HUMANA : A pipe organ stop which was designed, as far as possible, to imitate the human voice.


WEIGHTED KEYBOARD : Often used on digital pianos and some synthesisers; has more of the 'feel' of a piano, being heavier to the touch than the usual keyboard.

WOOFER : A loudspeaker specifically designed to handle the bass end of the sound spectrum.


XG : A further variation of General MIDI. XG instruments can play GM files, but doing it the other way will not make use of all the facilities of XG.

XLR PLUG : A robust locking plug/socket often used for microphone connections, and for leads going into a mixer.


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